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Education Center

Diamond Education

Buying a diamond ring is a major purchase. Read our detailed Diamond Education facts and learn how to evaluate the 4 C’s — a diamond’s color, clarity, cut, and carat weight — before you buy.

There are 4 "C's" to buying a diamond.
  1. Cut
  2. Color
  3. Clarity
  4. Carat Weight

The term "cut" does not refer to the shape of the diamond, but rather it refers to the faceting proportions on the surface of the diamond. More than any other factor, the precise positioning of these facets determines the brilliance of the stone.

However, when a stone is faceted to maximize brilliance, it loses size. Conversely, when cut for size, it loses brilliance.

In a stone in which brilliance is maximized, the 57 (or 58) facets of the diamond are aligned perfectly with the 33 facets on the crown (top) functioning as windows, collecting light into the heart of the stone. The 24 or 25 facets on the pavilion (bottom) mirror the light back and forth creating the fire and brilliance.

The best diamonds are either Ideal or Premium cuts. Both Ideal and Premium cuts have a depth of 58.7% - 62.7%. The table of a Premium cut stone ranges from 58%-61% and the table of an Ideal cut stone is 53%-57%.

There are three different cuts to a diamond: deep, shallow and ideal/premium. A diamond that is has a depth of greater than 62.7% is considered a deep stone. At that point, when the light enters the diamond most of the light will "leak" out of the bottom of the stone and the stone loses its brilliance. It also may appear smaller than its actual size. A diamond that has a depth of less than 58.7% is considered shallow. At this point, even though the stone may appear larger, it will lose its brilliance because the light will "leak" out of the side of the diamond. In an ideal or premium cut diamond, 80% of the light will reflect back to the eye and 20% will reflect within the stone. At that point, the diamond will generate an internal mirror effect that allows for maximum brilliance.

The color ranges from D-Z color:

D-F: Considered colorless
G-J: Considered "near colorless"
K-Z: Considered "off color"

Stores that carry only the finest quality diamonds will not consider "J" in their inventories.

The clarity range is as follows:

Flawless (FL): No inclusions or blemishes visible under ten-power magnification

Internally Flawless (IF): No inclusions visible under ten-power magnification, may have minor blemishes.

Very Very Slightly Included (VVS1 or VVS2): Contains minute inclusions such as small crystals, clouds or feathers, which are difficult to see under ten-power magnification.

Very Slightly Included (VS1 or VS2): Contains minor inclusions such as crystals, clouds or feathers, which are visible under ten-power magnification. There are some diamonds of VS2 clarity that may have black inclusions that are potentially visible to the naked eye.

Slightly Included (SI1 or SI2): Contains inclusions (clouds, included crystals, knots, cavities and feathers) that are noticeable under ten-power magnification.

Included (I1, I2 or I3): Contains inclusions (possible large feathers or large included crystals) that are obvious under ten power magnification and may affect transparency and brilliance of the diamond.

The weight of a diamond is measured in carats. There are 100 points in a carat.

There are approximately 30 different diamond grading laboratories throughout the world. GIA is considered the most reputable. Further, unlike the other diamond grading laboratories, GIA is a non-profit company.

The top part of a polished diamond above the girdle.

The sharp point at which all the facets of the pavilion meet. The culet of the diamond should be "NONE" or "VERY SMALL".

The small plane surfaces on the diamond. The placement and polish of the facets affects the brilliance of the diamond.

The flashing spectrum of colors seen when a diamond is moved, which is a result of its dispersion.

The luminescence that is caused by the absorption of radiation at one wavelength followed by nearly immediate reradiation usually at a different wavelength. Fluorescence in diamonds is an act of nature, and occurs randomly in diamonds. Fluorescence can make a colorless or near colorless diamond appear cloudy. On a GIA certificate, you only want diamonds that have no fluorescence or faint.

The outline edge of a polished stone, by which it is normally set. The girdle can either be faceted or non faceted. The girdle of the diamond should not be "EXTREMELY THIN" or "EXTREMELY THICK".

The bottom part of a polished diamond, below the girdle.

The smooth glossy finish on the facets of the diamond. The minimum standard for Polish for a fine diamond is "GOOD" and goes as high as "EXCELLENT".

The relationship of the facets to each other. The points at which they meet must be perfect. The minimum standard for Symmetry for a fine diamond is "GOOD" and goes as high as "EXCELLENT".

The table is the large facet on the top of the crown of the diamond. The relationship between the table size and the crown angle is responsible for the brilliance and the fire.

What is a Fancy Cut?
A Fancy cut or fancy shaped diamond refers to any diamond that is not round brilliant cut.

The following are examples of common fancy shapes:

Unlike rounds there are no set standards for ideal cut fancies, here are some tips:

Expect to see a "bow-tie" effect (usually dark but can be lighter) in the center of longer/narrower diamonds like marquise, pear and oval diamonds.

Popular length to width ratios are:

Pear 1.50 - 1.75 : 1
Marquise 1.75 - 2.25 : 1
Heart 0.98 - 1.02 : 1
Oval 1.33 - 1.66 : 1
Emerald 1.50 - 1.75 : 1
Radiant/Princess 0.95 - 1.05 : 1

It is very easy to see inclusions and lower color in emerald cut diamonds because they have a less "cluttered" look. The end facets are often very steep and can look very different to the side facets - it is better if they look similar.

Regardless of any ratios or numbers you get from any jeweler, each fancy cut diamond must be judged individually.

There are approximately 30 different diamond grading laboratories throughout the world. GIA is considered the most reputable because it is also considered the most conservative. Additionally, unlike every other diamond grading laboratory, GIA is a not-for-profit organization - they do not make money on evaluating and grading diamonds.

Sapphire Education

We are glad to present Ceylon Sapphires in terms or their quality. In comparison with other Sapphire mines such as Madagascar, Kanchanaburi and Australia, Ceylon sapphires are above the rest.

Beauty of a Ceylon Sapphire lies in its color, which Madagascar and Australia goods cannot attain. In order to understand these goods, we need to compare them with the other mines' stones. After placing them together on a matching tray, we can see all 4 C's like we see in diamonds, which are described below.

Most beautiful than any other mine in the world.

90% of the goods are clean or V S.

Our cutting for Ceylon Sapphires is very special. Our stones have 91 facets, which are very thin and have sharp girdles and similarities in all facets, whereas generally in the market, cutters put 48 facets in the pavilion and 31 facets on the table, making it a total of 79 facets. Also they keep thick girdles and all stones do not have the same facets. (Illustrated below)

The cost of our goods is well - established by the excellent color, clarity, and cutting style - This can be appreciated specially by customers looking for the higher-end quality.

Our specially cut Ceylon stones come with precise matching. These stones are neither flat nor thick, making them proportionate.

Similar looking stones are the biggest advantage for jewelers.

On top of everything we can guarantee to provide consistent quality and supply at the same price for at least one year. However if there is any change we will let you know in advance so you can plan to promote these goods more effectively in the future.

Comparison Chart

Color Greyish Dark & Blackish Light & Slight Greyish Good Open Blue

Inclusion 25% 10% 15% 10%
Cracks 25% 25% 15% 10%
Zoning 20% 10% 35% 15%

No. of Facets 79 79 79 91
Making Manual Manual Manual Machine Cut
Girdle Thick & uneven Thick & uneven Thick & uneven Thin, Sharp & Even
Height Thick & Flat Thick & Flat Thick & Flat Proportionate & Center Culet
Variation in Weight -15% To +15% -15% To +15% -15% To +15% -5% To +5%
Selection % for Matching 60% To 70% 70% To 80% 60% To 70% 80% To 90%
Price Medium Commercial Commercial Medium to Upper